== Lidhje të jashtme ==
==Architecture and buildings==
The difference between architecture and building is a subject matter that has engaged the attention of many. According to [[Nikolaus Pevsner]], [[Europe]]an historian of the early 20th century, "A bicycle shed is a building, [[Lincoln Cathedral]] is a piece of architecture". In current thinking, the division is not too clear. [[Bernard Rudofsky]]'s famous ''[[Architecture Without Architects]]'' consolidated a whole range of structures designed by ordinary people into the realm of architecture. The further back in history one goes, the greater is the consensus on what architecture is or is not, possibly because time is an efficient filter. If like Vitruvius we consider architecture as good building, then does it mean that bad architecture does not exist? To resolve this dilemma, especially with the increasing number of buildings in the world today, architecture can also be defined as what an architect does. This would then place the emphasis on the evolution of architecture and the architect.
Architecture is also the art of designing the human built environment. Buildings, landscaping, and street designs may be used to impart both functional as well as aesthetic character to a project. Siding and roofing materials and colors may be used to enhance or blend buildings with the environment. Building features such as cornices, gables, entrances, and window treatments and borders may be used to soften or enhance portions of a building. Landscaping may be used to create privacy and block direct views from or to a site and enhance buildings with colorful plants and trees. Street side features such as decorative lighting, benches, meandering walkways, and bicycle lanes can enhance the experience of a project site for passersby, pedestrians, and cyclists.
Architecture first evolved out of the dynamics between needs (shelter, security, worship, etc.) and means (available [[building material]]s and attendant skills). Prehistoric and primitive architecture constitute this early stage. As humans progressed and knowledge began to be formalised through oral traditions and practices, architecture evolved into a [[craft]]. Here there is first a process of trial and error, and later improvisation or replication of a successful trial. The architect is not the sole important figure; he is merely part of a continuing tradition. What is termed as [[Vernacular architecture]] today falls under this mode and still continues to be produced in many parts of the world.
[[Image:Hampi1.JPG|parapamje|[[Hampi|Virupaksha Temple]], [[Hampi]], [[India]]]]
Early human settlements were essentially [[rural]]. As surplus of production began to occur, rural societies transformed into [[urban]] ones and cities began to evolve. In many ancient civilisations such as the Egyptians' and Mesopotamians' architecture and urbanism reflected the constant engagement with the divine and the [[supernatural]]. However, the architecture and urbanism of the Classical civilisations such as the [[Greek]] and the [[Roman]] evolved from more civic ideas and many new building types emerged. Architectural styles developed and texts on architecture began to be written. These became canons to be followed in important works, especially religious architecture. Some examples of canons are the works of Vitruvius, the Kaogongji of ancient [[China]] and [[Vaastu Shastra]] in ancient [[India]]. In [[Europe]] in the [[Classical antiquity|Classical]] and [[Medieval]] periods, buildings were not attributed to specific individual architects who remained anonymous. [[Guild]]s were formed by craftsmen to organise their trade. Over time the complexity of buildings and their types increased. General civil construction such as roads and bridges began to be built. Many new building types such as schools, hospitals, and recreational facilities emerged.
[[Islamic architecture]] all by itself merits a special discussion. The concept of Islamic architecture can be understood in several ways. But perhaps a concise way of defining it would be to say that Islamic architecture is simply the architecture characteristic of predominantly Islamic societies as well as similar architecture elsewhere.
Using this definition, [[Islamic architecture]] has a long and complex history beginning in the 7th century CE continuing today. Examples can be found throughout the countries that are, or were, Islamic - from Morocco and Spain to [[Iranian architecture|Iran]], and Indonesia. Other examples can be found in areas where Muslims are a minority. Islamic architecture includes mosques, madrasas, caravansarais, palaces, and mausolea of this large region.
With the [[Renaissance]] and its emphasis on the individual and humanity rather than religion, and with all its attendant progress and achievements, a new chapter began. Buildings were ascribed to specific architects - [[Michaelangelo]], [[Brunelleschi]], [[Leonardo da Vinci]] - and the cult of the individual had begun. But there was no dividing line between [[artist]], [[architect]] and [[engineer]], or any of the related vocations. At this stage, it was still possible for an artist to design a bridge as the level of structural calculations involved were within the scope of the generalist.
With the consolidation of knowledge in scientific fields such as [[engineering]] and the rise of new materials and technology, the architect began to lose ground on the technical aspects of building. He therefore cornered for himself another playing field - that of [[aesthetics]]. There was the rise of the "gentleman architect" who usually dealt with wealthy clients and concentrated predominantly on visual qualities derived usually from historical prototypes. In the 19th century [[Ecole des Beaux Arts]] in [[France]], the training was toward producing quick sketch schemes involving beautiful drawings without much emphasis on context.
Meanwhile, the [[Industrial Revolution]] laid open the door for mass consumption and aesthetics started becoming a criterion even for the middle class as ornamented products, once within the province of expensive craftmanship, became cheaper under machine production. Such products lacked the beauty and honesty associated with the expression of the process in the product.
[[Image:taj_mahal.jpg|thumbnail|left|[[Taj Mahal]], [[Agra]], [[India]]]]
The dissatisfaction with such a general situation at the turn of the twentieth century gave rise to many new lines of thought that in architecture served as precursors to [[Modern Architecture]]. Notable among these is the [[Deutscher Werkbund]], formed in 1907 to produce better quality machine made objects. The rise of the profession of [[industrial design]] is usually placed here. Following this lead, the [[Bauhaus]] school, founded in [[Germany]] in 1919, consciously rejected [[history]] and looked at architecture as a synthesis of art, craft, and technology.
When Modern architecture first began to be practiced, it was an [[avant-garde]] movement with moral, philosophical, and aesthetic underpinnings. Truth was sought by rejecting history and turning to function as the generator of form. Architects became prominent figures and were termed masters. Later modern architecture moved into the realm of mass production due to its simplicity and economy.
However, a reductive quality began to be perceived in modern architecture by the general public from the [[1960s]]. Some reasons cited for this are its perceived lack of meaning, sterility, ugliness, uniformity, and psychological effects.
[[Image:Chryslerbldg.jpg|thumbnail|100px|[[Chrysler building]], [[New York City]], [[USA]]]]
The architectural profession responded to this partly by attempting a more populist architecture at the visual level, even if at the expense of sacrificing depth for shallowness, a direction called [[Postmodernism]]. [[Robert Venturi]]'s contention that a "decorated shed" (an ordinary building which is functionally designed inside and embellished on the outside) was better than a "duck" (a building in which the whole form and its function are considered together) gives an idea of this approach.
Another part of the profession, and also some non-architects, responded by going to what they considered the root of the problem. They felt that architecture was not a personal philosophical or aesthetic pursuit by individualists; rather it had to consider everyday needs of people and use technology to give a livable environment. The [[Design Methodology Movement]] involving people such as [[Chris Jones(design)|Chris Jones]], [[Christopher Alexander]] started searching for a more inclusive process of design in order to lead to a better product. Extensive studies on areas such as behavioural, environmental, and social sciences were done and started informing the design process.
As many other concerns began to be recognised and complexity of buildings began to increase in terms of aspects such as services, architecture started becoming more multi-disciplinary than ever. Architecture now required a team of professionals in its making, an architect being one among the many, sometimes the leader, sometimes not. This is the state of the profession today. However, individuality is still cherished and sought for in the design of buildings seen as cultural symbols - the museum or fine arts centre has become a showcase for new experiments in style: today [[Deconstructivism]], tomorrow maybe something else.
Buildings are one of the most visible productions of man, and vary greatly in design, function, and construction implementation across the globe from industrialized countries to "third world", or developing countries. The role of the Architect also varies accordingly. The vision (or lack of) that Architects project on the society in which they practice has a profound effect on the built environment, and consequently on the people who interact with that environment. The skills of the architect are sought after in many situations ranging from complex building types such as the [[Skyscraper]], Hospital, Stadium, Airport, etc. to less complicated project types such as commercial and residential buildings and development. Many types of projects or examples of Architecture can be seen as cultural and political symbols. Generally, this is what the public perceives as architecture. The role of the architect, though changing, has been central to the successful (and sometimes unsuccessful) design and implementation of the built environment in which we live. There is always a dialogue between society and the architect. And what results from this dialogue can be termed architecture - as a product and as a discipline.
[[image:architecture.swiss.re.arp.750pix.jpg|parapamje|right|250px|Four architectural styles in [[London]], [[England]], including the egg-shaped [[30 St Mary Axe|Swiss Re tower]]. In 2004 this building won the [[Stirling Prize]] for its architects [[Foster and Partners]] ]]
* [[Architectural history]]
* [[Architectural style]]
* [[Architectural theory]]
** [[Mathematics and architecture]]
** [[Pattern language]]
** [[Space syntax]]
* [[Architecture timeline]]
* [[Building code]]
* [[Building construction]]
* [[Building material]]
* [[Cathedral architecture]]
* [[Classical architecture]]
* [[Environmental design]]
* [[Forms in architecture]]
* [[Iranian architecture]]
* [[Landscape architecture]]
* [[List of architects]]
* [[List of architecture firms]]
* [[List of architecture prizes]]
** [[Pritzker Prize]]
** [[Stirling Prize]]
* [[List of buildings]]
* [[Structural engineering]]
* [[Sustainable design]]
* [[Vernacular architecture]]
* [[World Heritage Sites]]
== External links ==
*[http://www.archinect.com/ Archinect.com] - Popular online architecture source for news, jobs, events, discussions, and links
*[http://www.cgindia.blogspot.com/ CG India.com]- Independent online publication of architecture,design and Computer Graphics.
*[http://www.0lll.com/lud/pages/architecture/archgallery/ 0lll.com] - Photographs of Contemporary Architecture
*[http://www.archinform.net/ International Architecture Database archINFORM]
*[http://www.aia.org/ American Institute of Architects]
*[http://www.architecture.com/ Architecture.com - Courtesy of the Royal Institute of British Architects]
*[http://www.cupola.com/bldgstr1.htm Cupola - Building and Structure Galleries]
*[http://www.galinsky.com/ Galinsky - People enjoying buildings worldwide]
*[http://www.glasssteelandstone.com/ Global Architecture Encyclopedia - Glass Steel and Stone]
*[http://www.greatbuildings.com/ The Great Buildings Collection]
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