Flora është jeta bimore që ndodhet në një rajon të caktuar ose kohë, në përgjithësi jeta natyrale apo vendas-bimore amtare.

Simplified schematic of an island's flora - all its plant species, highlighted in boxes.


Termi "flora" vjen nga gjuha latine Flora, perëndia e bimëve, luleve, dhe pjellorisë në mitologjinë romake. Termi korrespondues për jetën e kafshëve është fauna. Flora, fauna dhe forma të tjera të life si psh kërpudhat janë emërtuar ne mënyre kolektive si biota. Disa flora moderne dhe klasike janë rreshtuar me poshtë.

Klasifikim i florësRedakto

Bimët janë grupuar ne flora te bazuara ne rajone, periudha, special environment, or climate. Regions can be geographically distinct habitats like mountain vs. flatland. Floras can mean plant life of an historic era as in fossil flora. Lastly, floras may be subdivided by special environments:

  • Native flora. The native and indigenous flora of an area.
  • Agricultural and garden flora. The plants that are deliberately grown by humans.
  • Weed flora. Traditionally this classification was applied to plants regarded as undesirable, and studied in efforts to control or eradicate them. Today the designation is less often used as a classification of plant life, since it includes three different types of plants: weedy species, invasive species (that may or may not be weedy), and native and introduced non-weedy species that are agriculturally undesirable. Many native plants previously considered weeds have been shown to be beneficial or even necessary to various ecosystems.

Bacterial organisms are sometimes included in a flora,[1][2] and sometimes the terms bacterial flora and plant flora are used separately. flora is a part of plant this is the veriation is a particluar aria.

Flora treatisesRedakto

 Artikulli kryesor: Flora treatise.
Floristic regions in Europe according to Wolfgang Frey and Rainer Lösch
A fossil leaf from the extinct Comptonia columbiana, 48.5 million years old. Klondike Mountain Formation, Republic, Ferry County, Washington, USA. Stonerose Interpretive Center.

A flora treatise, also known simply as a Flora, usually requires some specialist botanical knowledge to use with any effectiveness. Traditionally flora treatises are books, but some are now published on CD-ROM or websites.

It is said that the Flora Sinensis by the Polish Jesuit Michał Boym was the first book that used the name "Flora" in this meaning, a book covering the plant world of a region.[3] However, despite its title it covered not only plants, but also some animals of the region.

A flora treatise often contains diagnostic keys. Often these are dichotomous keys, which require the user to repeatedly examine a plant, and decide which one of two alternatives given in the flora best applies to the plant.

A compendium of world floras has been compiled by David Frodin.[4]

Flora klasikeRedakto


Flora moderneRedakto


  • Britton, N. L., and Percy Wilson. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands — Volume V, Part 1: Botany of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands: Pandanales to Thymeleales. New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1924.
Central & South America
North America


Taxus chinensis, Chinese Yew tree. Morton Arboretum
East Asia
Southeast Asia
Indian region and Sri Lanka
  • Flora of Bhutan
  • Flora of the Presidency of Madras by J.S. Gamble (1915–36)
  • Flora of Nepal
  • Bengal Plants by D. Prain (1903)
  • Flora of the upper Gangetic plains by J. F. Duthie (1903–29)
  • Botany of Bihar and Orissa by H.H. Haines (1921–25)
  • Flora of British India (1872–1897) by Sir J.D. Hooker
Middle East and western Asia


A closing venus fly trap.
  • Flora of Australia
  • Flora of New Zealand series:
    • Allan, H.H. 1961, reprinted 1982. Flora of New Zealand. Volume I: Indigenous Tracheophyta - Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Filicopsida, Gymnospermae, Dicotyledons. ISBN 0-477-01056-3.
    • Moore, L.B.; Edgar, E. 1970, reprinted 1976. Flora of New Zealand. Volume II: Indigenous Tracheophyta - Monocotyledons except Graminae. ISBN 0-477-01889-0.
    • Healy, A.J.; Edgar, E. 1980. Flora of New Zealand Volume III. Adventive Cyperaceous, Petalous & Spathaceous Monocotyledons. ISBN 0-477-01041-5.
    • Webb, C.J.; Sykes, W.R.;Garnock-Jones, P.J. 1988. Flora of New Zealand Volume IV: Naturalised Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Dicotyledons. ISBN 0-477-02529-3.
    • Edgar, E.; Connor, H.E. 2000. Flora of New Zealand Volume V: Grasses. ISBN 0-478-09331-4.
    • Volumes I-V: First electronic edition, Landcare Research, June 2004. Transcribed by A.D. Wilton and I.M.L. Andres.
    • Breitwieser I., Brownsey P., Ford K., Glenny D., Heenan P., Wilton A. eds. (2010-2011) Flora of New Zealand. Online Edition. [1].
  • Galloway, D.J. 1985. Flora of New Zealand: Lichens. ISBN 0-477-01266-3.
  • Croasdale, H.; Flint, E.A. 1986. Flora of New Zealand: Desmids. Volume I. ISBN 0-477-02530-7.
  • Croasdale, H.; Flint, E.A. 1988. Flora of New Zealand: Desmids. Volume II. ISBN 0-477-01353-8.
  • Croasdale, H.; Flint, E.A.;Racine, M.M. 1994. Flora of New Zealand: Desmids. Volume III. ISBN 0-477-01642-1.
  • Sykes, W.R.; West, C.J.; Beever, J.E.; Fife, A.J. 2000. Kermadec Islands Flora - Special Edition. ISBN 0-478-09339-X.

Pacific IslandsRedakto

  • Flora Vitiensis Nova, a New Flora of Fiji
  • Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai‘i, Warren L. Wagner and Derral R. Herbst (1991) + suppl. [2][lidhje e vdekur]
  • Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie
  • Flore de la Polynésie Française (J. Florence, vol. 1 & 2, 1997 & 2004)


British Isles

Africa dhe MadagaskariRedakto

  • Flore du Gabon
  • Flore du Cameroun
  • Flora of Tropical Africa
  • Flora of Tropical East Africa
  • Flora Capensis
  • Flora Zambesiaca
  • Flora of South Africa
  • Flore du Rwanda
  • Flore de Madagascar et des Comores

Flora në WikipediaRedakto

An aloe vera plant.
Blueberry plant with berries.

Wikipedia has the following mainly flora categories:

Shih edheRedakto

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  1. ^ "Flora - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Arkivuar nga origjinali më 30 prill 2006. Marrë më 25 tetor 2011. Mungon ose është bosh parametri |language= (Ndihmë!)
  2. ^ "Kopje e arkivuar". Arkivuar nga origjinali më 15 korrik 2007. Marrë më 25 tetor 2011. Mungon ose është bosh parametri |language= (Ndihmë!)
  3. ^ a b Flora Sinensis (access to the facsimile of the book, its French translation, and an article about it)
  4. ^ Frodin, David G. 2001. Guide to Standard Floras of the World. Second edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-79077-2.

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