Johann Gottlieb Fichte

filozof gjerman

Johan Gottlieb Fichte (19 maj 1762 - 29 janar 1814) [1] [2] [3] [4] ishte një filozof i shquar gjerman, një figurë themelore e lëvizjes filozofike e njohur si idealizmi gjerman, i cili u zhvillua nga shkrimet teorike dhe etike të Immanuel Kant. Kohët e fundit, filozofët dhe studiuesit kanë filluar ta vlerësojnë Fichten si një filozof të rëndësishëm në vetvete për shkak të njohjeve të tij origjinale për natyrën e vetëdijes ose vetëvetëdijes. [5] Fichte ishte gjithashtu krijuesi i tezës - antitezë-sintezë, [6] një ide që shpesh i atribuohet gabimisht Hegelit . [7] Si Descartes po edhe Kanti para tij, Fichte ishte i motivuar nga problemi i subjektivitetit dhe vetëdijes. Fichte gjithashtu shkroi edhe vepra të filozofisë politike; dhe ka një reputacion si njëri nga baballarët e nacionalizmit gjerman.

Johann Gottlieb Fichte.jpg

VepratRedakto

  • Ueber den Begriff der Wissenschaftslehre oder der sogenannten Philosophie (1794)
  • Grundlage der gesamten Wissenschaftslehre (1794/1795)
  • Wissenschaftslehre nova metodo (1796–1799: "Halle Nachschrift", 1796/1797 dhe "Krause Nachschrift," 1798/1799)
  • Versuch einer neuen Darstellung der Wissenschaftslehre (1797/1798)
  • Darstellung der Wissenschaftslehre (1801)
  • Die Wissenschaftslehre (1804, 1812, 1813)
  • Die Wissenschaftslehre, në ihrem allgemeinen Umrisse dargestellt (1810)
  • Versuch einer Critik aller Offenbarung (1792)
  • Beitrag zur Berichtigung der Urteile des Publikums Revolutionber die französische Revolution (1793)
  • Einige Vorlesungen über die Bestimmung des Gelehrten (1794)
  • Grundlage des Naturrechts (1796)
  • Das System der Sittenlehre nach den Principien der Wissenschaftslehre (1798)
  • "Ueber den Grund unsers Glaubens an eine göttliche Weltregierung" (1798)
  • "Appellation an das Publikum über die durch Churf. Sächs. Confiscationsrescript ihm beigemessenen atheistischen Aeußerungen. Eine Schrift, die man zu lesen bittet, ehe man sie confsicirt" (1799)
  • Der geschlossene Handelsstaat. Filozofi i Ein Entwurf als Anhang zur Rechtslehre und Probe einer künftig zu liefernden Politik (1800)
  • Die Bestimmung des Menschen (1800)
  • Friedrich Nicolais Leben und sonderbare Meinungen [8] (1801)
  • Philosophie der Maurerei. Briefe një Konstant (1802-1803)
  • Die Grundzüge des gegenwärtigen Zeitalters (1806)
  • Die Anweisung zum seligen Leben oder auch die Religionslehre (1806)
  • Reden an die deutsche Nation (1807/1808)
  • Das System der Rechtslehre (1812)

Përkthime në gjuhën anglezeRedakto

  • Concerning the Conception of the Science of Knowledge Generally (Ueber den Begriff der Wissenschaftslehre oder der sogenannten Philosophie, 1794), translated by Adolph Ernst Kroeger. In The Science of Knowledge, pp. 331–336. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1868. Rpt., London: Trübner & Co., 1889.
  • Attempt at a Critique of All Revelation. Trans. Garrett Green. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1978. (Translation of Versuch einer Critik aller Offenbarung, 1st ed. 1792, 2nd ed. 1793.)
  • Early Philosophical Writings. Trans. and ed. Daniel Breazeale. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1988. (Contains Selections from Fichte's Writings and Correspondence from the Jena period, 1794–1799).
  • Foundations of the Entire Science of Knowledge. Translation of: Grundlage der gesammten Wissenschaftslehre (1794/95, 2nd ed. 1802), Fichte's first major exposition of the Wissenschaftlehre. In: Heath, Peter, red. (1982). The Science of Knowledge. With the First and Second Introductions (reissued; first published by Meredith Corporation 1970). Texts in German Philosophy (në anglisht). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-27050-2.
  • Foundations of Natural Right. Trans. Michael Baur. Ed. Frederick Neuhouser. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. (Translation of Grundlage des Naturrechts, 1796/97.)
  • Foundations of Transcendental Philosophy (Wissenschaftslehre) Nova Methodo [FTP]. Trans. and ed. Daniel Breazeale. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1992. (Translation of Wissenschaftslehre nova methodo, 1796–1799.)
  • The System of Ethics according to the Principles of the Wissenschaftslehre (translation of Das System der Sittenlehre nach den Principien der Wissenschaftslehre, 1798). Ed. and trans. Daniel Breazeale and Günter Zöller. Cambridge University Press, 2005.
  • Introductions to the Wissenschaftslehre and Other Writings. Trans. and ed. Daniel Breazeale. Indianapolis, and Cambridge: Hackett, 1994. (Contains mostly writings from the late Jena period, 1797–1799.)
  • The Vocation of Man, 1848. Trans. Peter Preuss. Indianapolis. (Translation of Die Bestimmung des Menschen, 1800.)
  • The Vocation of the Scholar, 1847. (Translation of Einige Vorlesungen über die Bestimmung des Gelehrten, 1794.)
  • The Closed Commercial State: J G Fichte (with an interpretive essay by the translator, and with a German-English glossary). SUNY series in Contemporary Continental Philosophy (në anglisht). Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. 2013. ISBN 978-1-4384-4021-7.
  • A Crystal Clear Report to the General Public Concerning the Actual Essence of the Newest Philosophy: An Attempt to Force the Reader to Understand. Trans. John Botterman and William Rash. In: Philosophy of German Idealism, pp. 39–115. (Translation of Sonnenklarer Bericht an das grössere Publikum über das Wesen der neuesten Philosophie, 1801.)
  • The Science of Knowing: J.G. Fichte's 1804 Lectures on the Wissenschaftslehre (with an introduction by the translator and a German-English glossary). SUNY series in Contemporary Continental Philosophy (në anglisht). Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. 2005. ISBN 978-0-7914-6449-6.
  • Outline of the Doctrine of Knowledge, 1810 (Translation of Die Wissenschaftslehre, in ihrem allgemeinen Umrisse dargestellt published in From The Popular Works of Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Trubner and Co., 1889; trans. William Smith.)
  • On the Nature of the Scholar, 1845 (Translation of Ueber das Wesen des Gelehrten, 1806.)
  • Characteristics of the Present Age (Die Grundzüge des gegenwärtigen Zeitalters, 1806). In: The Popular Works of Johann Gottlieb Fichte, 2 vols., trans. and ed. William Smith. London: Chapman, 1848/49. Reprint, London: Thoemmes Press, 1999.
  • Addresses to the German Nation (Reden an die deutsche Nation, 1808), ed. and trans. Gregory Moore. Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  • The Philosophical Rupture Between Fichte and Schelling: Selected Texts and Correspondence (1800-1802). Trans. and eds. Michael G. Vater and David W. Wood. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2012. Includes the following texts by Johann Gottlieb Fichte: Correspondence with F.W.J. Schelling (1800–1802); "Announcement" (1800); extract from "New Version of the Wissenschaftslehre" (1800); "Commentaries on Schelling's System of Transcendental Idealism and Presentation of My System of Philosophy" (1800–1801).

ShënimeRedakto

  1. ^ "Fichte". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  2. ^ "Duden | Johann | Rechtschreibung, Bedeutung, Definition". Duden (në gjermanisht). Marrë më 20 tetor 2018. Johann
  3. ^ "Duden | Gottlieb | Rechtschreibung, Bedeutung, Definition". Duden (në gjermanisht). Marrë më 20 tetor 2018. Gọttlieb
  4. ^ "Duden | Fichte | Rechtschreibung, Bedeutung, Definition". Duden (në gjermanisht). Marrë më 20 tetor 2018. Fịchte
  5. ^ Dieter Henrich, "Fichte's Original Insight", Contemporary German Philosophy 1 (1982 [1966]), ed. by Darrel E. Christensen et al., pp. 15–52 (translation of Henrich, Dieter (1966), "Fichtes ursprüngliche Einsicht", in: Subjektivität und Metaphysik. Festschrift für Wolfgang Cramer edited by D. Henrich und H. Wagner, Frankfurt/M., pp. 188–232). Henrich's article is an analysis of the following three presentations of the Wissenschaftslehre: Grundlage der gesamten Wissenschaftslehre (Foundations of the Science of Knowledge, 1794/1795), Versuch einer neuen Darstellung der Wissenschaftslehre (An Attempt a New Presentation of the Wissenschaftslehre, 1797/1798), and Darstellung der Wissenschaftslehre (Presentation of the Wissenschaftslehre, 1801).
  6. ^ "Review of Aenesidemus" ("Rezension des Aenesidemus", February 11–12, 1794). Trans. Daniel Breazeale. In Breazeale, Daniel; Fichte, Johann (1993). Fichte: Early Philosophical Writings (në anglisht). Cornell University Press. f. 63. (See also: FTP, p. 46; Breazeale 1980–81, pp. 545–68; Breazeale and Rockmore 1994, p. 19; Breazeale 2013, pp. 36–37; Waibel, Breazeale, Rockmore 2010, p. 157: "Fichte believes that the I must be grasped as the unity of synthesis and analysis.")
  7. ^ Robert C. Solomon, In the Spirit of Hegel, Oxford University Press, p. 23.
  8. ^ English translation: Friedrich Nicolai's Life and Strange Opinions.

LiteraturaRedakto

  • Daniel Breazeale. "Fichte's Aenesidemus Review and the Transformation of German Idealism" The Review of Metaphysics, 34 (1980–81): 545–68.
  • Daniel Breazeale and Tom Rockmore (eds.). Fichte: Historical Contexts/Contemporary Controversies. Atlantic Highlands: Humanities Press, 1994.
  • Daniel Breazeale and Tom Rockmore (eds.), Fichte, German Idealism, and Early Romanticism, Rodopi, 2010.
  • Daniel Breazeale. Thinking Through the Wissenschaftslehre: Themes from Fichte's Early Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.
  • Ezequiel L. Posesorski. Between Reinhold and Fichte: August Ludwig Hülsen's Contribution to the Emergence of German Idealism. Karlsruhe: Karlsruher Institut Für Technologie, 2012.
  • Sally Sedgwick. The Reception of Kant's Critical Philosophy: Fichte, Schelling, and Hegel. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  • Violetta L. Waibel, Daniel Breazeale, Tom Rockmore (eds.), Fichte and the Phenomenological Tradition, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2010.
  • Günter Zöller. Fichte's Transcendental Philosophy: The Original Duplicity of Intelligence and Will. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.