Giardia lamblia (synonim me Giardia intestinalis, Lamblia intestinalis dhe Giardia duodenalis) është një parazit flagellated protozoan që kolonizon dhe riprodhohet në intestine të vogla, që shkakton giardiasis. Paraziti i giardia njgjitet te epithelium te një ventral adhesive disc, dhe riprodhohet përmes binary fission. Giardiasis nuk përhapet përmes rrugëve të gjakut, nor does it spread to other parts of the gastro-intestinal tract, but remains confined to the lumen of the small intestine. Giardia trophozoites absorb their nutrients from the lumen of the small intestine, and are anaerobes. If the organism is split and stained, it has a very characteristic pattern that resembles a familiar "smiley face" symbol. Chief pathways of human infection include ingestion of untreated sewage, a phenomenon particularly common in many developing countries; contamination of natural waters also occurs in watersheds where intensive grazing occurs.
|Giardia cell, SEM|
Ambjenti ku rritetRedakto
Cikli i jetësRedakto
Metabolizmin intracellular dhe biokimikRedakto
Giardia relies on glucose as its major energy source and breaks glucose down into ethanol, acetate and carbon dioxide. However, it can also use arginine as an energy source. Giardia possesses unique biochemical pathways that suggest that it diverged from other eukaryotes at an early stage in evolution.
B vitamins and bile salts, as well as glucose, are necessary for Giardia to survive, and a low-carbohydrate diet was shown in mice to reduce the number of Giardia organisms present.
Manifestimi i infeksionitRedakto
Nomenclature of Giardia species is difficult, as humans and other animals appear to have morphologically identical parasites.
People with recurring Giardia infections, particularly those with a lack of the Immunoglobulin A antibody, may develop chronic disease.
Menyra si të ruhemiRedakto
Treatment of drinking water for Giardia is ordinarily indicated in wilderness regions in North America, although at least four researchers disagree with this statement, including Robert W. Derlet, a professor at the University of California-Davis School of Medicine, Timothy P. Welch and Thomas R. Welsh of Tulane Medical School and the Children's Hospital of Cincinnati respectively, and Robert Rockwell, a widely quoted writer who is an engineer by training.
Boiling suspect water for one minute is the surest method to make water safe to drink and kill disease-causing microorganisms like Giardia lamblia if in doubt about whether water is infected with the Giardia parasite.
Trajtimi dhe diagnozaRedakto
Giardia lamblia infection in humans is frequently misdiagnosed. Accurate diagnosis requires an antigen test or, if that is unavailable, an ova and parasite examination of stool. Multiple stool examinations are recommended, since the cysts and trophozoites are not shed consistently. Given the difficult nature of testing to find the infection, including many false negatives, some patients should be treated on the basis of empirical evidence; treating based on symptoms.
Human infection is conventionally treated with metronidazole, tinidazole or nitazoxanide. Although Metronidazole is the current first-line therapy, it is mutagenic in bacteria and carcinogenic in mice, so should be avoided during pregnancy. It has not directly been linked to causing cancer in humans, only in other mammals, therefore appears safe. One of the most common alternative treatments is berberine sulfate (found in Oregon grape root, goldenseal, yellowroot, and various other plants).[nevojitet citimi] Berberine has been shown to have an antimicrobial and an antipyretic effect. Berberine compounds cause uterine stimulation, and so should be avoided in pregnancy. Continuously high dosing of berberine may lead to bradycardia and hypotension in some individuals.
|Drug||Treatment duration||Possible Side Effects|
|Metronidazole||5–7 ditë||Shije metalike; të përzihet; vomiting; dizziness; headache; disulfiram-like effect; neutropenia|
|Tinidazole||Një dozë evetme||Shije metalike; të përzihet; vomiting; belching; dizziness; headache; disulfiram-like effect|
|Nitazoxanide||3 ditë||Abdominal pain; diarrhea; vomiting; headache; yellow-green discolouration of urine|
|Albendazole||5 ditë||Dizziness; headache; fever; të përzihet; vomiting; temporary hair loss|
Table adapted from Huang, White.
Trajtimi te kafshëtRedakto
Seven genotypes have been recognised to date (A-G). Of these B is the most widespread. Only types A and B have been shown to be infectious to humans.
- ^ Oxford textbook of Medicine, Fourth Edition, Volume 1 (2003) Oxford University Press pp.759-760 ISBN 0-19-262922-0
- ^ Harrison's Internal Medicine, Harrison's Online Chapter 199 Protozoal intestinal infections and trochomoniasis
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- ^ Tovar J; León-Avila G; Sánchez LB; etj. (2003). "Mitochondrial remnant organelles of Giardia function in iron-sulphur protein maturation". Nature. 426 (6963): 172–6. doi:10.1038/nature01945. 14614504.
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- ^ a b Brown DM, Upcroft JA, Edwards MR, Upcroft P (1998). "Anaerobic bacterial metabolism in the ancient eukaryote Giardia duodenalis". International Journal for Parasitology. 28 (1): 149–64. doi:10.1016/S0020-7519(97)00172-0. 9504342.Mirëmbajtje CS1: emra të shumëfishtë: lista e autorëve (link)
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- ^ a b c Gabim referencash: Etiketë
<ref>e pavlefshme; asnjë tekst nuk u dha për refs e quajtura
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- ^ Welch TP (2000). "Risk of giardiasis from consumption of wilderness water in North America: a systematic review of epidemiologic data". International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 4 (2): 100–3. doi:10.1016/S1201-9712(00)90102-4. 10737847.
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