Flavius Julius Constantius (greqisht: Κωνστάντιος; 7 gusht 317 - 3 nëntor 361), i njohur si Konstanci II, ishte perandor romak nga 337 në 361. Mbretërimi i tij pa luftë të vazhdueshme në kufijtë kundër Perandorisë Sasaniane dhe popujve gjermanikë, ndërsa brenda Perandorisë Romake kaloi luftëra të përsëritura civile, intriga të gjykatave dhe uzurpime. Politikat e tij fetare ndezën konfliktet e brendshme që do të vazhdonin edhe pas vdekjes së tij.

Konstanci II

BiografiaRedakto

Konstanci ishte i biri i Konstandinit të Madh, i cili e ngriti atë në gradën perandorake të Cezarit më 8 Nëntor 324 dhe pas vdekjes së të cilit Konstanci u bë Auust së bashku me vëllezërit e tij, Konstandini II dhe Konstansi më 9 Shtator 337. Ai mbikëqyri menjëherë masakrën e vjehrrit të tij, një xhaxhai dhe disa kushërinjve, duke konsoliduar kontrollin e tij në pushtet. Vëllezërit e ndanë perandorinë mes tyre, me Kostandinin që mori Greqinë, Trakinë, provincat aziatike dhe Egjiptin në lindje. Për dekadën në vijim, një luftë e kushtueshme dhe jokonkluzive kundër Persisë mori shumicën e kohës dhe vëmendjes së Konstancit. Ndërkohë, vëllezërit e tij Konstandini dhe Konstansi luftuan mbi krahinat perëndimore të perandorisë, duke lënë të parin të vdekur në 340 dhe këtë të fundit si sundimtarin e vetëm të perëndimit. Dy vëllezërit e mbetur ruajtën një paqe të pakëndshme me njëri -tjetrin derisa, në 350, Konstans u përmbys dhe u vra nga uzurpatori Magnentius .

Si perandor, Konstanci promovoi Krishterizmin Arian, ndaloi flijimet pagane dhe nxori ligje kundër hebrenjve . Fushatat e tij ushtarake kundër fiseve gjermanike ishin të suksesshme: ai mundi Alemanët në 354 dhe bëri fushatë përtej Danubit kundër Kuadëve dhe Sarmatëve në 357. Lufta kundër Sasanianëve, e cila ishte në qetësi që nga viti 350, shpërtheu me intensitet të ri në 359 dhe Konstanci udhëtoi në lindje në 360 për të rivendosur stabilitetin pas humbjes së disa kështjellave kufitare. Sidoqoftë, Juliani pretendoi gradën augustus në 360, duke çuar në luftë midis të dyve pasi përpjekjet e Konstancit për të bindur Julianin të tërhiqej dështuan. Asnjë betejë nuk u zhvillua, pasi Konstanci u sëmur dhe vdiq nga ethet më 3 nëntor 361 në Mopsuestia, gjoja duke emëruar Julianin si pasardhësin e tij të ligjshëm para vdekjes së tij.[1] Though he made initial preparations for the war, Constantine fell ill and sent Constantius east to take command of the eastern frontier.[1][2] [3] Constantius captured Amida and initiated a major refortification of the city, enhancing the city's circuit walls and constructing large towers. He also built a new stronghold in the hinterland nearby, naming it Antinopolis.[4]

Shih edheRedakto

LiteraturaRedakto

  • Ammianus Marcellinus. Res Gestae.
    • Yonge, Charles Duke, trans. Roman History. London: Bohn, 1862. Online at Tertullian. Accessed 15 August 2009.
    • Rolfe, J.C., trans. History. 3 vols. Loeb ed. London: Heinemann, 1939–52. Online at LacusCurtius. Accessed 15 August 2009.
    • Hamilton, Walter, trans. The Later Roman Empire (A.D. 354–378). Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1986. [Abridged edition]
  • Athanasius of Alexandria.
    • Festal Index.
      • Atkinson, M., and Archibald Robertson, trans. Festal Letters. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 4. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Accessed 15 August 2009.
    • Epistula encyclica (Encyclical letter). Summer 339.
      • Atkinson, M., and Archibald Robertson, trans. Encyclical letter. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 4. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent and Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Accessed 15 August 2009.
    • Apologia Contra Arianos (Defense against the Arians). 349.
      • Atkinson, M., and Archibald Robertson, trans. Apologia Contra Arianos. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 4. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 14 August 2009.
    • Apologia ad Constantium (Defense before Constantius). 353.
      • Atkinson, M., and Archibald Robertson, trans. Apologia ad Constantium. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 4. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 14 August 2009.
    • Historia Arianorum (History of the Arians). 357.
      • Atkinson, M., and Archibald Robertson, trans. Historia Arianorum. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 4. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 14 August 2009.
    • De Synodis (On the Councils of Arminium and Seleucia). Autumn 359.
      • Newman, John Henry and Archibald Robertson, trans. De Synodis. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 4. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 15 August 2009.
    • Historia acephala. 368 – c. 420.
      • Robertson, Archibald, trans. Historia Acephala. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 4. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent and Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Codex Justinianus.
    • Scott, Samuel P., trans. The Code of Justinian, in The Civil Law. 17 vols. 1932. Online at the Constitution Society. Accessed 14 August 2009.
  • Ephraem the Syrian. Carmina Nisibena (Songs of Nisibis).
    • Stopford, J.T. Sarsfield, trans. The Nisibene Hymns. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 13. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1890. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 16 August 2009.
    • Bickell, Gustav, trans. S. Ephraemi Syri Carmina Nisibena: additis prolegomenis et supplemento lexicorum Syriacorum (in Latin). Lipetsk: Brockhaus, 1866. Online at Google Books. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Epitome de Caesaribus.
    • Banchich, Thomas M., trans. A Booklet About the Style of Life and the Manners of the Imperatores. Canisius College Translated Texts 1. Buffalo, NY: Canisius College, 2009. Online at De Imperatoribus Romanis. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Eunapius. Lives of the Sophists.
  • Eusebius of Caesarea.
    • Oratio de Laudibus Constantini (Oration in Praise of Constantine, sometimes the Tricennial Oration).
      • Richardson, Ernest Cushing, trans. Oration in Praise of Constantine. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 1. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1890. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 16 August 2009.
    • Vita Constantini (Life of Constantine).
      • Richardson, Ernest Cushing, trans. Life of Constantine. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 1. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1890. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 25 August 2009.
  • Festus. Breviarium.
    • Banchich, Thomas M., and Jennifer A. Meka, trans. Breviarium of the Accomplishments of the Roman People. Canisius College Translated Texts 2. Buffalo, NY: Canisius College, 2001. Online at De Imperatoribus Romanis. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Firmicus Maternus. De errore profanarum religionum (On the error of profane religions).
    • Baluzii and Rigaltii, eds. Divi Cæcilii Cypriani, Carthaginensis Episcopi, Opera Omnia; accessit J. Firmici Materni, Viri Clarissimi, De Errore Profanarum Religionum (in Latin). Paris: Gauthier Brothers and the Society of Booksellers, 1836. Online at Google Books. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Hilary of Poitiers. Ad Constantium (To Constantius).
    • Feder, Alfred Leonhard, ed. S. Hilarii episcopi Pictaviensis Tractatus mysteriorum. Collectanea Antiariana Parisina (fragmenta historica) cum appendice (liber I Ad Constantium). Liber ad Constantium imperatorem (Liber II ad Constantium). Hymni. Fragmenta minora. Spuria (in Latin). In the Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Latinorum, Vol. 65. Vienna: Tempsky, 1916.
  • Itinerarium Alexandri (Itinerary of Alexander).
    • Mai, Angelo, ed. Itinerarium Alexandri ad Constantium Augustum, Constantini M. Filium (in Latin). Regiis Typis, 1818. Online at Google Books. Accessed 15 August 2009.
    • Davies, Iolo, trans. Itinerary of Alexander. 2009. Online at DocStoc[lidhje e vdekur]. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Jerome.
    • Chronicon (Chronicle).
      • Pearse, Roger, et al., trans. The Chronicle of St. Jerome, in Early Church Fathers: Additional Texts. Tertullian, 2005. Online at Tertullian. Accessed 14 August 2009.
    • de Viris Illustribus (On Illustrious Men).
      • Richardson, Ernest Cushing, trans. De Viris Illustribus (On Illustrious Men). From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 3. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Libanius. Oratio 59 (Oration 59).
    • M.H. Dodgeon, trans. The Sons of Constantine: Libanius Or. LIX. In From Constantine to Julian: Pagan and Byzantine Views, A Source History, edited by S.N.C. Lieu and Dominic Montserrat, 164–205. London: Routledge, 1996. ISBN 0-415-09336-8
  • Origo Constantini Imperatoris.
    • Rolfe, J.C., trans. Excerpta Valesiana, in vol. 3 of Rolfe's translation of Ammianus Marcellinus' History. Loeb ed. London: Heinemann, 1952. Online at LacusCurtius. Accessed 16 August 2009.
  • Papyri Abinnaeus.
    • The Abinnaeus Archive: Papers of a Roman Officer in the Reign of Constantius II (in Greek). Duke Data Bank of Documentary Papyri. Online at Perseus and the Duke Data Bank[lidhje e vdekur]. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Papyri Laurentius.
    • Dai Papiri della Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana (in Greek). Duke Data Bank of Documentary Papyri. Online at Perseus and the Duke Data Bank[lidhje e vdekur]. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Philostorgius. Historia Ecclesiastica.
    • Walford, Edward, trans. Epitome of the Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius, Compiled by Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople. London: Henry G. Bohn, 1855. Online at Tertullian. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Socrates. Historia Ecclesiastica (History of the Church).
    • Zenos, A.C., trans. Ecclesiastical History. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 2. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1890. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 14 August 2009.
  • Sozomen. Historia Ecclesiastica (History of the Church).
    • Hartranft, Chester D. Ecclesiastical History. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 2. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1890. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Sulpicius Severus. Sacred History.
    • Roberts, Alexander, trans. Sacred History. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 11. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1894. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 14 August 2009.
  • Theodoret. Historia Ecclesiastica (History of the Church).
    • Jackson, Blomfield, trans. Ecclesiastical History. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 3. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892. Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. Online at New Advent. Accessed 15 August 2009.
  • Themistius. Orationes (Orations).
  • Zosimus. Historia Nova (New History).
    • Unknown trans. The History of Count Zosimus. London: Green and Champlin, 1814. Online at Tertullian. Accessed 15 August 2009. [An unsatisfactory edition.]
    • Unknown trans. Histoire Nouvelle and ΖΩΣΙΜΟΥ ΚΟΜΙΤΟΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΠΟΦΙΣΚΟΣΥΝΗΓΟΡΟΥ (in French and Greek). Online at the Catholic University of Louvain. Accessed 16 November 2009.

ReferimetRedakto

  1. ^ a b Dodgeon, M.H. and Lieu, N.C. The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars, AD 226–363. p152-153
  2. ^ Julian, Orationes I, 13B
  3. ^ Festus, breviarum 27, p. 67, 2–3
  4. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus XVIII, 9, 1